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Your business Needs An internet Marketing Plan - 31 Jul 2015 11:55


[[html]]The 7 Critical Things you must start your own personal Legitimate Home Based Business. They want something functional, yet classy and simple but elegant. You may have noticed that Google search result now shows the local map about the right side, and local businesses (also known as \"Google\" instead of \"Google\") is definitely an organic search results.<br><br>Market Penetration - Sell more of the same product towards the same customers target market. In the Ponzi scheme, there is certainly no product. Our free business plan software programs are made to give start-up businesses and entrepreneurs a good start, but now it is time to take your enterprise and your organization plan towards the next level. Never neglect your family, as they need your ex girlfriend and attention too. Incentivize your visitors to take the survey by offering a rebate or discount on their next order.<br><br>By sharing useful information and honest tips over these internet home business forums you\'ll commence to brand your name. They are wearing so many hats that taking the time for you personally to understand how to accomplish Internet marketing has run out of the question. on silver and gold, indispensible for the process of manufacturing the signature watch cases, were elevating production costs beyond sustainability. Non-Qualified rates range from 12%-63% (depending on type of business) furthermore towards the Qualified rate.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>With wholesale watches, you may make money. However, you must take the time to choose carefully. In our society we can categorize business in to the following:Agriculture and Land - Using the land and its product to farm or extract raw materialsManufacturing - Turning raw products into a product that can be soldRetail and Distribution - Selling manufactured goods and foodFinance and Banking - Management of capital used for investment and other servicesTransportation - Delivery and logistical planning of the <a href=""></a> delivery of goodsReal Estate / Property - Ownership of land and construction of buildings and infrastructureUtilities - Public services and essential supplies such as Gas, Water and ElectricityInformation Management - Profit from intellectual property which could be anything from software development, a film script, a weapons defense system and everything in between. They possess the distinction of being the pioneers of the revolutionary team planning method. Bad Credit Business Loan.<br><br>Leaders running a business know what it will take to achieve and keep a high amount of sales. While it might appear being a huge task that takes a great deal of computer know-how, you can readily find tutorials and help articles about the Internet that can walk you step-by-step through completing the tasks listed above. Once you learn how to produce beaded watch bands, patterns you can test out within this area of handcrafted jewelry are innumerable. -Robert Quadra.<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

The history Of Cartier - And Where You Should Buy Cartier Watches - 30 Jul 2015 23:29


[[html]]Being a local company owner means that you have to locate effective ways for you to attract local customers to buy products of your stuff or you will not earn any <a href=""></a> money at all. In 1996, 240 million timepieces were produced by Citizen. Few other businesses permit as much creativity, ingenuity or spontaneity as running a gift basket company.<br><br>Market Penetration - Sell really the same product towards the same customers target market. Never neglect your family, because they need your ex girlfriend and attention too. Reinsurers supply the insurance providers with insurance. In the Ponzi scheme, there is no product. Incentivize your clients to consider the survey by providing a rebate or discount on their next order.<br><br>How does the GPS technology help tracking children?. And should you choose an environmentally-safe metal cleaning model, such as you from CPR Systems, you may well be able to have a break for choosing a \"green\" native. But now to then consWe ARE dealing having a network marketing company here, and which is not really a negative thing itself - BUT - there is a quite high failure rate on this industry, and also in Arbonne the failure rate is 97 % high.<br><br>With that attitude it means they are refer one to their friends and co-business leagues. One is always that it gives you something additional to sell to your existing customers, and second is that these new products can attract a whole slew of recent customers. I once worked to get a bank which in fact had the phrase \"Relationships\" because the answer to their mission statement. Apart from Don Johnson from the show, there were style icons like James Bond (of the 80s), Michael Jackson, Bill Cosby, Anthony Michael Hall, David Lee Roth, Mr. Some of the mobile commerce services are mobile banking, mobile marketing and advertising, mobile brokerage, auctions, etc.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Research is Very important in the big event you want to avoid getting scammed. For example, with just several simple getting in touch along with you can get a variety of car estimates. If you don\'t want to spend time for you to learn and later grow your business, you should just use their products.<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

Why Social Media is Important For Marketing - 30 Jul 2015 17:53


[[html]]\"How is it possible to squander even one more day not taking advantage of the greatest shifts of our own generation? How dare you be satisfied with less when the entire world has managed to get so easy for you personally to be remarkable?\". Today, you obtain instant s from friends whether they are out on a skiing trip or attending a concert. However researchers are asking whether these social media sites are substituting face-to-face interaction. This will keep you relevant, knowledgeable and a mainstay in the blogging world.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>The next thing is learning to be a master of your blogging software. It will not need to be told that viewing such content has adverse and permanent effects on a child\'s mind. While good keyword saturation and advertisements will increase the revenue of your blog it\'s not going to keep readers coming back. Companies like CNN and BBC, not only showcase news and live footage, but give a platform for users to give their opinions or start discussions, even forums. Creating Awareness.<br><br>The next thing is being a master of your blogging software. The Facebook patent \"news-feed\" is really a remarkable way to obtain sharing views and thoughts. On another hand, adults are good at organizational skills and know how you can manage their time fruitfully. On another hand, adults are great at organizational skills and know how you can manage their time fruitfully. Social media can be a quick interface, which s itself within seconds and is also accessed around the same day an event takes place.<br><br>* Boost Your Visibility Online and Offline. A recent concept that has just arrived is about producing money through Facebook profiles. While good keyword saturation and advertisements will heighten the revenue of your blog it won\'t keep readers coming back. Social media is a quick interface, which s itself in seconds and it is accessed about the same day an event takes place.<br><br>These were a few of the ways in which social media can affect a relationship. As someone has rightly declared we need to fall set up with technology rather of computer falling in place with us. As someone has rightly asserted we need to fall set up with technology rather of computer falling set up with us. . It is important that individuals put technology to get affordable use as it really can enhance the quality <a href=""></a> in our lives.<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

Why Multi Level Marketing is A Money Laundering Business - 29 Jul 2015 01:26


[[html]]MLM business opportunity network marketing is a thing hundreds of 1000s of entrepreneurs are looking to obtain into every day. This would be to claim that within a short-term, you is planning to be gaining an instantaneous visitor. He was struggling waiter who was simply struggling to maintain a roof over his head as pawned all his valuables just so he could have adequate food to produce it towards the the following month that wouldn\'t be any a lot better than the last. The reason is really because there is a lack of leadership and guidance on this community. Building an MLM business has several positive aspects in this aspect, as once you a solid downline, the income more or less runs itself on autopilot.<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="355" /><br><br>Books, on <a href=""></a> the other hand, have usually gone through some kind of the review process before publication. Indirect marketing makes use of a funnel pointing toward the place where the business can make money. . The MLM system then makes contact with the leads through an auto-responder email. Its great! Card locations might include: * personal growth books * business magazines * home-based business magazines * stay at home mum magazines * property magazines * home design magazines * designer magazines * art and design magazines.<br><br>Hence, here we have brief out some advantages and disadvantages of viral marketing. If they actually do not possess the first penny to join, or they reside in a a part of the entire world that the program you might be in does not exist, then your leads wouldn\'t be qualified. It consists of placing advertisements of products and services around the company website, sites which are ranking on the first page of search engines, and sites which are getting a tremendous amount of traffic from Internet users. Direct Marketing and advertising.<br><br>The attraction MLM Lead System Pro can be a prospecting tool which will assist you increase your lead generation effort. It is more risky and controversial as comparative to traditional marketing. Every business can be a pyramid.<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="348" /><br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>1- Continuously enhance and adapt your strategy for the changing conditions of the market. Pretty much everyone who joins the system uses these tools, and so the market is oversaturated with them and it is likely to be hard to get business this way and be noticeable from your crowd. So those ought to be addressed within the online marketing strategy which is planning to be implemented. Network marketing or MLM.<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="354" /><br><br>In multi-level marketing the distributors who registered under you becomes your down line as well as the one who recruited you is called your up line from which you get help getting started, learn about hosted MLM software and training. These people are simply starting out and there is not any possible way that they can know all of the particulars of e-commerce or understand specifically what is needed being successful. . The MLM system then makes contact using the leads through an auto-responder email. Statistics reveal this technique did wonders for the company.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>So if you want to adopt a behind the curtain pre-release look at the facebook secret which is about to shake the net to its core then I strongly recommend you read everything around the next page before it\'s too late!. Ray\'s background and story might seem familiar to many it appears many were also dead broke when starting out. Those who\'re against purchasing leads increase the risk for following points: The leads are tough to verify, in regards to what the seller says about them.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>4 - The number of posters you print may also play an important role in the success of your campaign. These people are just starting out and there isn\'t any possible way that they can know all the ins and outs of e-commerce or understand specifically what is needed being successful. Remember <a href="">Web Design</a> that it\'ll take patience, resilience and consistent effort for you to definitely succeed.<br><br>Many people over estimate their sales ability, a huge selection of sales is really a large amount of sales, especially when you first start out with no downline. There can be a thin line between being <a href="">Web Design</a> creative and unappealing, and also this is merely certainly one of the countless challenges you\'ll face when you might be getting into MLM <a href="">Web Site Design</a> business opportunity network marketing. Items which can be utilized by everyone are ideal promotional mugs, pens, bags and notebooks are all excellent examples.<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

Software Testing - The Way To Go About For Beginners - 28 Jul 2015 21:04


[[html]]If hardware can be believed to form our <a href="">best workforce management software</a> bodies of a computer system, software is its mind. In learning about computers, the first step usually would be to understand the major kinds of software, their uses, and applications. Most of our own everyday computer usage involves the first two.<br><br>It took away the prestige of the game, it rewarded the ordinary and penalized the super elite class of pvpers which in fact had developed throughout the honor days. GIMP includes many of the features that Photoshop has, including: photo <a href="">workforce management software reviews</a> retouching, photo enhancement, as well as support for any variety of file formats. Like Homestyler, you are doing not have access to to sign up to check it out out, however the program won\'t let you save your valuable design unless you need to do sign up.<br><br>LibreOffice includes a cousin called OpenOffice. You\'ll probably require a pop filter to accompany your mic of choice. GIMP includes many of the features that Photoshop has, including: photo retouching, photo enhancement, also as support for a variety of file formats. Adobe Acrobat.<br><br>I hope this set of free 3D home design software program is helpful. Start in plan view to view your design in 2D from above, or change to 3D view. Fortunately for your computer artist on a budget, there is a great open source native in Blender. Fortunately for the <a href=""></a> computer artist on a budget, there exists a great open source native in Blender. Mutation Testing: In mutation testing, the applying is tested for the code that was modified after fixing a particular bug/defect.<br><br><img src="" width="335" /><br><br>These methods demonstrate the output and enable you to check when the software satisfies the requirement of the customers. The old honor system, of classic WoW were gone. Most proprietary software are available inside the closed source form. By taking away the ranks and making the honor avaliable to everyone, it suddenly made the best a part of the game, the honor system, simply a formality to grinding pvp gear.<br><br><img src="" width="287" /><br><br>A software license determines the way that software can be accessed and used. GIMP includes many of the features that Photoshop has, including: photo retouching, photo enhancement, as well <a href="">workforce management software pricing</a> as support to get a variety of file formats. I am about 950 articles short of reaching my goal.<br><br>LibreOffice includes a cousin called OpenOffice. com may be exactly everything you are looking for. GIMP includes many of the features that Photoshop has, including: photo retouching, photo enhancement, as well as support for any variety of file formats. Adobe Acrobat.<br><br>I believe that the honor system to become superior towards the token system in everyway. A computer database relies on database software to organize data and enable database users to perform database operations. Fortunately for the computer artist on a budget, there is a great open source native in Blender. Fortunately for the computer artist on a budget, there is <a href="">workforce management software pricing</a> a great open source native in Blender. The term free identifies freedom of copying, distributing and modifying.<br><br><img src="" width="292" /><br><br>Software development is really a very broad topic with many books written around the subject. A large amount of paid 3D design software tools exist too, some for reasonable prices plus some for astronomical prices, but fundamental essentials best free packages that I have found. Step 7: Evaluate the project planWith all of the tasks entered, and sub-tasks specified, the plan has really evolved. And their means to communicate are these different types of computer software.<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

African Americans and Alzheimer's disease: role of health educators in addressing this silent epidemic. - 24 Jul 2015 04:59


[[html]]According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011),&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most under recognized public health&#13;<br><br>crisis of this century. The number of people with AD is growing&#13;<br><br>drastically. This number is expected to more than double by 2025&#13;<br><br>(Herbert, Scherr, Bienias, Bennett, &amp; Evans, 2003; Mount &amp;&#13;<br><br>Downton, 2006) and will increase to more than 16 million by 2050, as the&#13;<br><br>nation's baby boomers are living longer. The first wave of baby&#13;<br><br>boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964) turned 65 in 2011, and in&#13;<br><br>2029 all baby boomers will be at least 65 years old. This group of more&#13;<br><br>than 70 million individuals will be one of the largest groups to have a&#13;<br><br>significant impact on America's health care system. There is&#13;<br><br>widespread belief that even these numbers are underestimated due to&#13;<br><br>underreporting of AD deaths on death certificates, both in the community&#13;<br><br>and in nursing homes (Alzheimer's Association [AA], 2011).&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease most often occurs in individuals in their&#13;<br><br>50s and 60s. This is referred to as late onset Alzheimer's disease&#13;<br><br>(LOAD) and is most common. However AD may also occur in individuals who&#13;<br><br>are in their late 30s and early 40s. This is referred to as early-onset&#13;<br><br>AD. Most often, the disease is diagnosed with a thorough medical&#13;<br><br>history, testing for a person's mental status, a physical and&#13;<br><br>neurological examination, and a series of blood tests and image analyses&#13;<br><br>to rule out other causes of dementia-like symptoms. In addition, new&#13;<br><br>diagnostic criteria include the identification of three stages of AD and&#13;<br><br>the incorporation of biomarker analyses, according to the&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's Association (AA, 2013a).&#13;<br><br>Today, Alzheimer's disease is the 6th leading cause of death&#13;<br><br>for Americans and the 5th leading cause of death in persons 65 and older&#13;<br><br>(AA, 2012a). Deaths from AD increased 66 percent between 2000 and 2008.&#13;<br><br>Whereas deaths from AD are increasing, the death rate for heart disease,&#13;<br><br>the number one cause of death in the United States, has been decreasing&#13;<br><br>over the past few years. In addition to health-related problems,&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease has a tremendous financial impact on American&#13;<br><br>society. For example, the estimated cost associated with AD for 2012&#13;<br><br>will be $200 billion, with $140 billion costs to Medicare and Medicaid.&#13;<br><br>During the 40-year period between 2010 and 2050, the total cost of care&#13;<br><br>for Americans age 65 and older with AD is expected to increase from $172&#13;<br><br>billion to $1.08 trillion per year (AA, 2012a; Gurland et al., 1999;&#13;<br><br>Hendrie et al., 2006; &amp; Tang et al., 2001).&#13;<br><br>In racial minority communities, the prevalence of AD among&#13;<br><br>individuals aged 65 years and older is estimated to be higher than in&#13;<br><br>the non-Hispanic white counterparts (AA, 2012a; Gurland et al., 1999;&#13;<br><br>Hendrie et al., 2006; &amp; Tang et al., 2001). According to the AA&#13;<br><br>(2010), African Americans are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic&#13;<br><br>whites to have AD. The AA published a report entitled African Americans&#13;<br><br>and Alzheimer's Disease: The Silent Epidemic (2012b). This report&#13;<br><br>revealed that the prevalence, incidence, and cumulative risk for AD seem&#13;<br><br>to be higher among African Americans than white Americans. Further, it&#13;<br><br>was estimated that age-specific prevalence of dementia may be 14% to&#13;<br><br>100% higher among African Americans (AA, 2012b).&#13;<br><br>The "silent epidemic" of Alzheimer's is expected to&#13;<br><br>increase significantly among African Americans as the proportion of&#13;<br><br>older African Americans is projected to grow in the coming years. By&#13;<br><br>2030, more than 6 million African Americans over the age 65 years and&#13;<br><br>638,000 over the age of 85 years are estimated to be at risk for AD (AA,&#13;<br><br>2012a). Freels, Nyehuis, and Gorelick (2002) reported that&#13;<br><br>African-American elders have a greater risk of dying from AD than any&#13;<br><br>other type of dementia. This higher risk could be due to genetic factors&#13;<br><br>as well as environmental factors such as stress and lifestyle that&#13;<br><br>increase the risk for hypertension, metabolic disorders, and&#13;<br><br>cardiovascular disease.&#13;<br><br>Currently, there are five FDA-approved medications that temporarily&#13;<br><br>reduce symptoms for some individuals with AD, although there is still no&#13;<br><br>cure (AA, 2011). Because there is no known cure for AD, or any&#13;<br><br>disease-modifying drug which slows its progression, the best that one&#13;<br><br>can expect from the available drugs is to be able to temporarily improve&#13;<br><br>certain symptoms. These may include: (1) helping to maintain thinking,&#13;<br><br>memory, and speaking skills, (2) assisting with the management of&#13;<br><br>behavioral symptoms such as wandering, sleeplessness, depression,&#13;<br><br>anxiety and agitation, and (3) improving the quality of life, in&#13;<br><br>general. Increasingly more non-pharmacologic interventions are also used&#13;<br><br>to enhance patient quality of life by improving mood, cognition and&#13;<br><br>performance of daily activities (National Institute on Aging [NIA],&#13;<br><br>2012a).&#13;<br><br>Recent research studies indicate that the risk for developing&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease can be lowered or reduced with lifestyle&#13;<br><br>changes and early drug therapies (Eskelinen, Ngandu, Tuomilehto,&#13;<br><br>Soininen, &amp; Kivipelto, 2011; Miller, 2012). Thus, there is a role&#13;<br><br>for health educators to play in reducing the risk for developing&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease among Americans. With the continuous increase&#13;<br><br>in the number of Americans, particularly African Americans, developing&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease, it is imperative that the health education&#13;<br><br>professional literature includes information on AD and the role of&#13;<br><br>health educators in addressing this disease. The aim of this paper is to&#13;<br><br>provide health educators with an overview of AD and factors associated&#13;<br><br>with the health disparity of AD in the African-American community.&#13;<br><br>Finally, the paper will discuss strategies for health educators in&#13;<br><br>addressing Alzheimer's disease among African Americans.&#13;<br><br>OVERVIEW OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative, irreversible,&#13;<br><br>progressive disease that gradually renders the patient devoid of memory&#13;<br><br>and cognitive ability (Dubois et al., 2007). Although not certain,&#13;<br><br>researchers believe that damage to the brain from AD starts at least ten&#13;<br><br>years or more before a person shows any signs (NIA, 2012a). Two major&#13;<br><br>hallmarks that occur in AD patients are the occurrence of tangles and&#13;<br><br>the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain (American Health&#13;<br><br>Assistance Foundation [AHAF], 2012). As a consequence, many of the&#13;<br><br>normal 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) deteriorate and eventually die.&#13;<br><br>Images of brains in patients who have severe AD show significant&#13;<br><br>shrinkage of the brain, as well as debris from dead and dying brain&#13;<br><br>cells. In addition, increasing numbers of the 100 trillion synapses&#13;<br><br>(connections between neurons) lose connectivity; neuronal cell&#13;<br><br>communication is halted and the cellular basis of memory and skills&#13;<br><br>known as cognitive abilities are lost as well (NIA, 2012b).&#13;<br><br>Whereas AD is the most common form of dementia, there are several&#13;<br><br>other types, including: (1) vascular dementia, which is also referred to&#13;<br><br>as multi-infarct or post-stroke dementia, or vascular cognitive&#13;<br><br>impairment; (2) mixed dementia, which is the combination of&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's and one other type of dementia; (3) dementia with Lewy&#13;<br><br>bodies, where individuals may hallucinate and experience rigid muscles&#13;<br><br>and tremors and accumulate Lewy deposits in the brain; (4)&#13;<br><br>Parkinson's disease, where persons experience movement disorders&#13;<br><br>and also accumulate Lewy deposits in the brain; (5) Frontotemporal&#13;<br><br>dementia, where persons experience damage to brain cells in the front&#13;<br><br>and side regions of the brain and experience behavioral and speech&#13;<br><br>challenges; (6) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, where persons experience&#13;<br><br>memory, coordination and behavioral challenges; and (7) Normal pressure&#13;<br><br>hydrocephalus, where there is a buildup of fluid in the brain and&#13;<br><br>persons experience memory problems and the inability to control&#13;<br><br>urination (AA, 2012a).&#13;<br><br>SIGNS, SYMPROMS, AND STAGES OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE<br><br>Increasingly, studies are indicating that most people who have&#13;<br><br>dementia have more than one type of brain disease (Schneider,&#13;<br><br>Arvanitakis, Bang, &amp; Bennett, 2007). These findings are leading&#13;<br><br>investigators to believe that the delineations among the different types&#13;<br><br>are blurred at best. The hallmark of dementia is the loss of memory or&#13;<br><br>other cognitive abilities. Other lost abilities include the inability to&#13;<br><br>generate coherent speech or written language, recognize or identify&#13;<br><br>objects, execute motor abilities, think in abstract ways, and the&#13;<br><br>inability to make sound judgments to plan and carry out complex tasks.&#13;<br><br>Patients with AD tend to progressively suffer from memory deterioration,&#13;<br><br>progressive decline in cognition, insidious onset of memory loss,&#13;<br><br>emergence of neuro-psychiatric symptoms and behavioral disturbances,&#13;<br><br>along with the inability to carry out daily life functions and&#13;<br><br>eventually independent functioning (AA, 2012a).&#13;<br><br>As described earlier, the centers in the brain that are responsible&#13;<br><br>for recent memory deteriorate and die in a person with Alzheimer's&#13;<br><br>disease. Consequently, one of the most common earliest signs of AD is&#13;<br><br>memory loss; however, as shown in Table 1, there are other early signs&#13;<br><br>that are noticeable with people who have AD (AA, 2011).&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer is an irreversible and progressive disease that moves&#13;<br><br>through stages (mild, moderate, and severe). The mild stage is&#13;<br><br>characterized with the following symptoms: memory loss, poor judgment,&#13;<br><br>mood and personality changes, longer time to complete daily tasks, and&#13;<br><br>getting lost. Moderate Alzheimer's disease includes the following&#13;<br><br>signs: increasing memory loss and confusion, shortened attention span,&#13;<br><br>inappropriate outburst of anger, repetitive statements or movement, and&#13;<br><br>difficulty with recognizing friends and family members. In the final&#13;<br><br>stage, severe AD, patients tend to exhibit the following&#13;<br><br>characteristics: problems swallowing, seizures, skin infections,&#13;<br><br>increased sleeping, and loss of bladder and bowel control (NIA, 2012a).&#13;<br><br>RISK FACTORS FOR ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE&#13;<br><br>The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is not clearly known.&#13;<br><br>However, there are risk factors that are associated with the development&#13;<br><br>of AD. Advancing age is the greatest risk factor for AD, although this&#13;<br><br>disease is not an inevitable part of the aging process. As seen in&#13;<br><br>transgenic mice models, behaviors that maintain vascular health, such as&#13;<br><br>regular exercises and healthy diet, are associated with lower risk for&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia (Costa et al.,&#13;<br><br>2007; Hu et al., 2010). These studies suggest that regular physical&#13;<br><br>activity and attention to heart health may reduce the risk of developing&#13;<br><br>AD and benefit individual's cognitive health (Costa et al., 2007;&#13;<br><br>Hu et al., 2010). Non-modifiable risk factors for AD include age, family&#13;<br><br>history, and genetic factors (Bassil &amp; Grossberg, 2009). The&#13;<br><br>modifiable risk factors that are associated with AD include:&#13;<br><br>hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, smoking, alcohol,&#13;<br><br>metabolic syndrome and head trauma (Bassil &amp; Grossberg, 2009). Among&#13;<br><br>these risk factors are several health disparities that plague minority&#13;<br><br>communities such as hypertension and diabetes. The clustering of these&#13;<br><br>risk factors increases the incidence of the disease in minority&#13;<br><br>communities (Luchsinger et al., 2005).&#13;<br><br>Factors Associated with Increased Risks for African Americans&#13;<br><br>Age is the strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease,&#13;<br><br>regardless of race or ethnicity. Aside from age, there are biological,&#13;<br><br>lifestyle and socio-cultural factors that may put African Americans at a&#13;<br><br>greater risk for developing AD. This section will discuss these factors&#13;<br><br>that seem to increase African Americans risk of developing AD.&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Biological and Personal Factors Genetics and family history. As&#13;<br><br>mentioned early, Alzheimer's disease has two forms, early-onset and&#13;<br><br>late- onset Alzheimer disease. Early-onset is rare, as only about five&#13;<br><br>percent of the people with AD have this form. Additionally, early-onset&#13;<br><br>AD tends to cluster within families. Most Americans with AD are aged 65&#13;<br><br>or older. Both forms have specific genes associated with the risk of&#13;<br><br>developing AD (AA, 2010). Reports by Gatz et al. (2006) indicated the&#13;<br><br>heritability for AD to be as high as 79 percent.&#13;<br><br>According to genome-wide association studies, there are&#13;<br><br>approximately 10 gene variants that are closely associated with&#13;<br><br>susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (Mayeux, 2011). Mutations in&#13;<br><br>three dominant genes (PSEN1, PSEN2 and APP) were shown to account for&#13;<br><br>increased risk in early-onset AD (Levy-Lahad, Lahad, Wijsman, Bird,&#13;<br><br>&amp; Schellenberg, 1995; Sherrington et al., 1995; Sleegers &amp; van&#13;<br><br>Duijn, 2001; Tanzi &amp; Bertram, 2001).&#13;<br><br>For many years, the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) was the only gene&#13;<br><br>recognized as being associated with LOAD (Corder et al., 1993; Farrer et&#13;<br><br>al., 1997). Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a plasma protein that plays a&#13;<br><br>role in the transport of lipids. The presence and concentration of this&#13;<br><br>gene is reported to be a risk factor for LOAD. Until recently, the&#13;<br><br>presence of APOE-e4 allele was believed to be a determinant of AD risk&#13;<br><br>in white Americans; reports for the APOE status for African Americans&#13;<br><br>were inconsistent (Evans et al., 2003; Tang et al, 2001). A study by&#13;<br><br>Reitz et al. (2013) revealed that the genes APOE-e4 and ABCA7&#13;<br><br>demonstrate genetic risk for LOAD among African Americans.&#13;<br><br>To date, this study is the largest analysis to determine the&#13;<br><br>genetic risk associated with LOAD among African Americans. A total of&#13;<br><br>5896 African Americans 60 years or older participated in the study. A&#13;<br><br>major finding of the study indicated that ABCA7 gene has a much stronger&#13;<br><br>association for LOAD among African Americans than individuals of&#13;<br><br>European ancestry (Reitz et al., 2013). Although not conclusive, this&#13;<br><br>study provides the strongest evidence of the genetic risk of AD among&#13;<br><br>African Americans. Researchers (Reitz et al, 2013) recommended that the&#13;<br><br>study be replicated to validate the results.&#13;<br><br>In addition to the genetic basis for AD among African Americans, it&#13;<br><br>seems that African Americans have a stronger familial risk of&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease than white Americans. Green et al. (2002) found&#13;<br><br>that first-degree relatives of African Americans with AD have a higher&#13;<br><br>cumulative risk of dementia than do those of white Americans with AD.&#13;<br><br>Logue et al. (2011) explained that the increased familial risk among&#13;<br><br>African Americans may be due to higher rates of risk factors for AD,&#13;<br><br>such as poor education, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking.&#13;<br><br>In summary, the genetic risk factor alone does not explain the&#13;<br><br>disproportionally presence of AD among African Americans. Other factors&#13;<br><br>such as the presence of vascular diseases may be major risk factors to&#13;<br><br>consider, along with family history, regarding the prevalence of AD&#13;<br><br>among African Americans.&#13;<br><br>Relationship of certain diseases and prevalence of AD. There is an&#13;<br><br>emerging body of evidences that suggest an association between vascular&#13;<br><br>diseases and Alzheimer's disease (Kirbach &amp; Mintzer, 2008;&#13;<br><br>Tsivgoulis et al., 2009; Vermeer et al., 2003; Viswanathan, Rocca, &amp;&#13;<br><br>Tzourio, 2009). In this context, vascular diseases refer to&#13;<br><br>diseases/conditions that damage the heart and blood vessels, including&#13;<br><br>blood vessels for the brain (AA, 2008). Vascular diseases/ conditions,&#13;<br><br>such as high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, and high cholesterol, are&#13;<br><br>believed to be major risk factors for the development of AD (Costa et&#13;<br><br>al., 2007; Tsivgoulis et al., 2009). Thus, these diseases/conditions are&#13;<br><br>highly prevalent among African Americans, which may increase their risk&#13;<br><br>for developing AD (AA, 2010). Further, stroke is thought to be one of&#13;<br><br>the main causes of dementia in later life. A population study of 658&#13;<br><br>non-demented elderly participants suggests that silent strokes or brain&#13;<br><br>infarcts and hippocampus volume are associated with impaired memory and&#13;<br><br>lower performance on tasks related to language, processing speed, and&#13;<br><br>visuo-spatial functioning (Blum et al., 2012).&#13;<br><br>Social Determinants&#13;<br><br>Perception of risks and cultural beliefs. There is a growing body&#13;<br><br>of literature that indicates there are differences in the knowledge,&#13;<br><br>perceptions and beliefs about Alzheimer's disease across racial and&#13;<br><br>ethnic groups in America (Connell, Roberts, &amp; McLaughlin, 2007;&#13;<br><br>Roberts et al; 2003). Roberts et al. (2003) surveyed a small sample of&#13;<br><br>African Americans and Whites to understand cultural differences in&#13;<br><br>perceptions of AD. African Americans were less knowledgeable about&#13;<br><br>certain facts of AD such as the risk factors, cause of disease and&#13;<br><br>available resources. The study also revealed that African Americans were&#13;<br><br>less worried about developing AD than their white counterparts. African&#13;<br><br>Americans were more likely than Whites to believe that AD is "just&#13;<br><br>part of growing older." Connell et al. (2007) also noted that&#13;<br><br>significantly more African Americans than Whites believed memory loss is&#13;<br><br>a normal part of the aging process. The findings from these studies may&#13;<br><br>help to explain the delay of African Americans in seeking treatment for&#13;<br><br>AD. These findings also support the need to implement Alzheimer's&#13;<br><br>educational outreach efforts that will specifically target the African&#13;<br><br>American community.&#13;<br><br>Under- and late- diagnoses of AD in African Americans. According to&#13;<br><br>the AA (2013), many Americans are diagnosed too late and miss the&#13;<br><br>opportunity to receive the best medical care that is available today.&#13;<br><br>Further, late- and under-diagnoses are of greater concern among African&#13;<br><br>Americans, because they are more likely to develop AD than white&#13;<br><br>Americans. African Americans are less likely than Whites to have a&#13;<br><br>formal diagnosis for AD. Delay in diagnosis indicates a delay for&#13;<br><br>individuals to start drug treatment in the earlier stages of AD, when&#13;<br><br>treatments are more likely to be effective. Also, earlier diagnosis&#13;<br><br>allows individuals to make plans for their medical, financial, and legal&#13;<br><br>care while they still have some cognitive abilities (AA, 2010; AA,&#13;<br><br>2012a).&#13;<br><br>Late diagnoses or misdiagnoses are even more common among people&#13;<br><br>who live alone. For racial minority groups, this stark level of&#13;<br><br>under-diagnosis only adds to the growing challenges of managing AD, both&#13;<br><br>for the patient and the caregiver. In addition to under diagnosis for&#13;<br><br>the elderly, it is estimated that 15% of individuals with dementia live&#13;<br><br>alone, and that African American men older than 65 are more likely than&#13;<br><br>Asian or non-Hispanic white men in the same age range to live alone (AA,&#13;<br><br>2012a). Alzheimer's disease prevalence among African Americans is&#13;<br><br>exacerbated by the growing evidence that this population, as well as&#13;<br><br>older non-white Hispanics, is misdiagnosed more often than in older&#13;<br><br>Whites (Fitten, Ortiz, &amp; Ponton, 2001). Given that these two&#13;<br><br>populations are expected to grow significantly in the next few years,&#13;<br><br>under-diagnosis in these groups will be a major national concern.&#13;<br><br>As stated earlier, by 2050, the number of people who have&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease in America is expected to increase from 5.4&#13;<br><br>million to 16 million, unless there is a cure or major intervention (AA,&#13;<br><br>2012). Without interventions in the African-American community, such as&#13;<br><br>education, awareness, and improved literacy, it stands to reason that&#13;<br><br>either misdiagnosis or late-diagnosis will continue to contribute to the&#13;<br><br>growing health disparity of AD among African-American elders.&#13;<br><br>Researchers (Corbie-Smith, Thomas, &amp; St. George, 2002; Corbie-Smith,&#13;<br><br>Thomas, Williams, &amp; Moody-Ayers, 1999) have noted that African&#13;<br><br>Americans tend to lack trust in the medical community and clinical&#13;<br><br>research due to a history of racial discrimination, inequity of health&#13;<br><br>care, and unethical research practices, such as found in the Tuskegee&#13;<br><br>Syphilis Study. Chin, Negash, &amp; Hamilton (2011) suggested that&#13;<br><br>medical discriminatory practices may still exist and possibly play a&#13;<br><br>role in the diagnosis and treatment of AD among minority patients.&#13;<br><br>Underrepresentation of African Americans in research and clinical&#13;<br><br>trials. The population of the United States is more than 12%&#13;<br><br>African-American; in some states, African Americans comprise more than&#13;<br><br>30% of the total population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). In addition,&#13;<br><br>more than 45% of the population is now considered as non-white. This&#13;<br><br>number is expected to increase 50% by 2050 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010).&#13;<br><br>In spite of efforts by the federal government to increase minority&#13;<br><br>recruitment into health related research studies, African Americans and&#13;<br><br>other minorities are still underrepresented in clinical research trials&#13;<br><br>(Arean &amp; Gallagher-Thompson, 1996; Brawley &amp; Tejeda, 1995;&#13;<br><br>Yancey, Ortega, &amp; Kumanyika, 2006). This low inclusion rate&#13;<br><br>ultimately impedes drug development and the design of specific&#13;<br><br>treatments of illnesses that disproportionately affect minority&#13;<br><br>populations, including African Americans (Byrd et al., 2006).&#13;<br><br>Williams et al. (2010) conducted a study to examine the barriers&#13;<br><br>and facilitators of Alzheimer's disease research participation&#13;<br><br>among African Americans. The study found that mistrust was the main&#13;<br><br>barrier for nonparticipation. Other barriers of the study included&#13;<br><br>inconvenience, lack of sufficient information about the research, and&#13;<br><br>reputation of both the researcher and research institution. In addition,&#13;<br><br>the study revealed that the key facilitators for getting African&#13;<br><br>Americans to participate in research included the following: relevance&#13;<br><br>of research to them, moral obligation, desire to learn more about the&#13;<br><br>disease, and positive reputation of the research institution (Williams&#13;<br><br>et al., 2010).&#13;<br><br>Research by Byrd et al. (2011) showed that African Americans do&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>participate in research and that barriers to research participation must&#13;<br><br>be addressed to improve participation by minorities. It is especially&#13;<br><br>important for African-American males to be well-represented in future&#13;<br><br>research studies, given that they have the worst age-adjusted health&#13;<br><br>outcomes of any ethnic, racial or gender group (Rich &amp; Ro, 2002).&#13;<br><br>Byrd et al.'s (2011) study revealed that African-American males are&#13;<br><br>willing to participate in several types of studies, even those that&#13;<br><br>require human samples; however, they are still mistrustful about&#13;<br><br>research. Further, their decisions to participate in research were&#13;<br><br>motivated by issues such as civic duty, monetary compensation, and&#13;<br><br>whether a relative has had the disease of interest (Byrd et al, 2011).&#13;<br><br>In general, African Americans' participation in health related&#13;<br><br>research studies will require intentionality on the part of&#13;<br><br>investigators. Multifaceted approaches that provide this group with a&#13;<br><br>better awareness and sustained presence in the community will be needed&#13;<br><br>to increase the number of African Americans who participate in studies&#13;<br><br>(Lang et al., 2013). Whereas the approach is costly and time consuming,&#13;<br><br>in some cases, it is necessary to improve racial, ethnic and gender&#13;<br><br>inclusion, to reduce generalization of study results about&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease.&#13;<br><br>TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE&#13;<br><br>Increased education among African Americans about this growing&#13;<br><br>epidemic is a major first step toward understanding its signs and&#13;<br><br>symptoms, risk factors, management and ultimate prevention. Efforts that&#13;<br><br>raise awareness among underrepresented groups should become major&#13;<br><br>priorities for governmental and private funding agencies across the&#13;<br><br>country. Reducing the number of people with AD will require the disease&#13;<br><br>to be considered and addressed as a public health issue. The following&#13;<br><br>public health education strategies are recommended to lower African&#13;<br><br>Americans' risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and for&#13;<br><br>early detection of the disease:&#13;<br><br>* Increase awareness and knowledge about Alzheimer's disease&#13;<br><br>among African Americans, including preventative strategies. Enacted in&#13;<br><br>2011, the National Alzheimer's Project Act includes the&#13;<br><br>establishment of a national plan to address AD (U.S. Department of&#13;<br><br>Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2012). The National Alzheimer's&#13;<br><br>Plan, a historic achievement, provides goals, strategies, and actions&#13;<br><br>designed to prevent and effectively treat Alzheimer's disease by&#13;<br><br>2025. One of the goals of the plan is to create greater public awareness&#13;<br><br>and engagement regarding AD. Schools and faith-based institutions may be&#13;<br><br>the most culturally appropriate places to reach African Americans for&#13;<br><br>public awareness and education about AD. Schools should included lessons&#13;<br><br>on Alzheimer's disease in the health education curriculum as one of&#13;<br><br>the chronic diseases like heart disease and cancer. In addition,&#13;<br><br>faith-based activities and programs on Alzheimer's disease should&#13;<br><br>be created and implemented in the African-American churches.&#13;<br><br>* Promote actions that preserve healthy brain aging such as regular&#13;<br><br>exercise and physical activity, healthy diet that includes plenty of&#13;<br><br>vegetables and fruits, intellectually stimulating activities, and&#13;<br><br>healthy levels of blood cholesterol and blood pressures (AHAF, 2012).&#13;<br><br>Scarmeas et al. (2009) conducted a study to investigate the combined&#13;<br><br>association of diet and physical activity with AD risk. They concluded&#13;<br><br>that both a Mediterranean-type diet and physical activity were&#13;<br><br>independently associated with reduced risk for developing AD. Eskelinen&#13;<br><br>et al. (2011) found that obesity at mid-life is associated with an&#13;<br><br>increased risk of AD later in life. Several studies (Blum et al., 2012;&#13;<br><br>Gorelick, 2004; Helzner, Luchsinger, &amp; Scarmeas, 2009; Kivipelto et&#13;<br><br>al., 2005) indicate that risk factors such as high cholesterol,&#13;<br><br>diabetes, hypertension and obesity are associated with a higher risk of&#13;<br><br>developing Alzheimer's disease and other dementia.&#13;<br><br>* Encourage African Americans to participate in clinical trials for&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease. Emphasize the importance of knowing how&#13;<br><br>genetics, treatments, drugs and alternative therapies work in different&#13;<br><br>ethnic groups. Also, the National Alzheimer's Plan calls for&#13;<br><br>strategies to increase participation of racial and ethnic minorities in&#13;<br><br>AD studies (USDHHS, 2012). Researchers must make more of an effort to&#13;<br><br>have racially diverse samples and recruit minorities to AD studies.&#13;<br><br>* Advocate for policies that support underserved families impacted&#13;<br><br>by AD. The National Alzheimer's Plan recognizes that racial/ethnic&#13;<br><br>minorities are disproportionally burdened by Alzheimer's disease&#13;<br><br>(USDHHS, 2012). They are more likely to face barriers in obtaining a&#13;<br><br>diagnosis for AD. In addition, racial/ethnic minorities tend to have&#13;<br><br>more difficulties in receiving services after the onset of AD. These&#13;<br><br>families need assistance in providing care to their love one who is&#13;<br><br>suffering from AD. Perhaps, a policy that addresses the following will&#13;<br><br>improve the care to underserved families: providing accurate and timely&#13;<br><br>diagnosis to all populations, providing access to care for all AD&#13;<br><br>patients, and requiring education on AD for practitioners who do not&#13;<br><br>generally specialize in the care of patients with AD.&#13;<br><br>In conclusion, health educators have a role to play in the National&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's Plan for addressing the health disparity of AD among&#13;<br><br>African Americans. All seven Roles and Responsibilities of a health&#13;<br><br>educator are applicable for addressing AD. This paper will highlight&#13;<br><br>Responsibilities IV, VI, and VII. Responsibility IV states that health&#13;<br><br>educators "conduct evaluation and research related to health&#13;<br><br>education" (National Commission for Health Education Credentialing&#13;<br><br>[NCHEC], 2012). To close the health disparity gap regarding&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease and African Americans, more socio-cultural and&#13;<br><br>behavioral studies are needed to understand the impact of lifestyle,&#13;<br><br>cultural beliefs and stigma in the development of AD. In addition,&#13;<br><br>larger studies of African Americans are needed to assess their AD&#13;<br><br>knowledge, attitudes, and perception of risk to develop appropriate&#13;<br><br>interventions. Lastly, more studies of African Americans, which consist&#13;<br><br>of larger sample sizes, should be conducted to determine the role of&#13;<br><br>genetics and family history in the development of Alzheimer's&#13;<br><br>disease amongst this population.&#13;<br><br>Responsibility VI states that health educators "serve as&#13;<br><br>health education resource person" (NCHEC, 2012). Health educators&#13;<br><br>need to disseminate information that is culturally relevant for African&#13;<br><br>Americans on Alzheimer's disease, including ways to manage vascular&#13;<br><br>diseases and other risk factor factors for AD. It is important to&#13;<br><br>emphasize recommendations for keeping numbers for both blood pressure&#13;<br><br>and diabetes in the healthy range so as to lower risk for developing AD.&#13;<br><br>Responsibility VII indicates that health educators should&#13;<br><br>"communicate and advocate for health and health education"&#13;<br><br>(NCHEC, 2012). Thus, health educators should create and tailor messages&#13;<br><br>that are culturally relevant for the African-American community on:&#13;<br><br>warning signs and symptoms of AD, their risks for developing AD, ways to&#13;<br><br>promote brain health, and strategies to prevent or reduce behaviors&#13;<br><br>associated with developing AD. Also, health educators should advocate&#13;<br><br>that physician test high risk patients for AD so as to start them on&#13;<br><br>treatment early in the disease process, which may help to slow the&#13;<br><br>progression of the disease.&#13;<br><br>References&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's Association (2010). 2010 Alzheimer's disease&#13;<br><br>facts <a href=""></a> and figures: Special report on race, ethnicity and&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's &amp; Dementia, 6(2),&#13;<br><br>158-194.&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's Association (2011). 2011 Alzheimer's <a href=""></a> disease&#13;<br><br>facts and figures. 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Frequency of&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in a community outreach&#13;<br><br>sample of Hispanics. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 49(10),&#13;<br><br>1301-1308.&#13;<br><br>Freels, S., Nyenhuis, D.L., &amp; Gorelick, P.B. (2002). Predictors&#13;<br><br>of survival in African American patients with AD, VaD, or stroke without&#13;<br><br>dementia. Neurology, 59(8), 1146-1153.&#13;<br><br>Gatz, M., Reynolds C.A., Fratiglioni, L., Johansson, B., Mortimer,&#13;<br><br>J.A., Berg, S., … Pedersen, N.L. (2006). Role of genes and&#13;<br><br>environments for explaining Alzheimer disease. Archives of General&#13;<br><br>Psychiatry, 63(2), 168-174.&#13;<br><br>Girard, S.D., Baranger, K., Gauthier, C., Jacquet, M., Bernard, A.,&#13;<br><br>Escoffier, G., … Roman, F.S. (2013). Evidence for early cognitive&#13;<br><br>impairment related to frontal cortex in the 5XFAD mouse model of&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 33(3),&#13;<br><br>781-796.&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Gorelick, P.B. (2004). Risk factors for vascular dementia and&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer disease. Stroke, 35, 2620-2622.&#13;<br><br>Green, R.C., Cupples, L.A., Rodney, G., Benke, K.S., Edeki, T.,&#13;<br><br>Griffith, P.A., … Farrer, L.A. (2002). Risk of dementia among white&#13;<br><br>and African American relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease.&#13;<br><br>Journal of the American&#13;<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="387" /><br><br>Medical Association, 287(3), 329-336. Gurland, B.J., Wilder, D.E.,&#13;<br><br>Lantigua, R., Stern, Y., Chen, J., Killeffer, E.H., &amp; Mayeux, R.&#13;<br><br>(1999). Rates of dementia in three ethnoracial groups. International&#13;<br><br>Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(6), 481-493.&#13;<br><br>Helzner, E.P., Luchsinger, J.A., Scarmeas, N., Cosentino, S.,&#13;<br><br>Brickman, A.M., Glymour, M. M., &amp; Stern, Y. (2009). Contribution of&#13;<br><br>vascular risk factors to the progression in Alzheimer disease. Archives&#13;<br><br>of Neurology, 66(3), 343-347.&#13;<br><br>Hendrie, H.C., Albert, M.S., Butters, M.A., Gao, S., Knopman, D.S.,&#13;<br><br>Launer, L.J., … Wagster, M.V. (2006). The NIH Cognitive and Emotional&#13;<br><br>Health Project. Report of the Critical Evaluation Study Committee.&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's &amp; Dementia, 2(1), 12-32.&#13;<br><br>Herbert, L.E., Scherr, P.A., Bienias, J.L., Bennett, D.A., &amp;&#13;<br><br>Evans, D.A. (2003). Alzheimer disease in the US population: prevalence&#13;<br><br>estimates using the 2000 census. Archives of Neurology, 60(8),&#13;<br><br>1119-1122.&#13;<br><br>Hu, Y.S., Xu, P., Pigino, G., Brady, S.T., Larson, J., &amp;&#13;<br><br>Lazarov, O. (2010). Complex environment experience rescues impaired&#13;<br><br>neurogenesis, enhances synaptic plasticity, and attenuates&#13;<br><br>neuropathology in familial Alzheimer's disease-linked&#13;<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="272" /><br><br>APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 mice. Federation of American Societies for&#13;<br><br>Experimental Biology Journal, 24(6), 1667-1681.&#13;<br><br>Kalaria, R.N., Akinyemi, R., &amp; Ihara, M. (2012). Does vascular&#13;<br><br>pathology contribute to Alzheimer changes? Journal of the Neurological&#13;<br><br>Sciences, 322(1-2), 141-147.&#13;<br><br>Kirbach, S.E., &amp; Mintzer, J. (2008). 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Apolipoprotein E genotypes and age of onset&#13;<br><br>in earlyon-set familial Alzheimer's disease. Annals of Neurology,&#13;<br><br>38(4), 678-680.&#13;<br><br>Logue, M.W., Schu, M., Vardarajan, B.N., Bu ros, J., Green, R.C.,&#13;<br><br>Go, R.C.P., … Farrer, L.A. (2011). A comprehensive genetic association&#13;<br><br>study of Alzheimer disease in African Americans. Archives of Neurology,&#13;<br><br>68(12), 1569-1579.&#13;<br><br>Luchsinger, J.A., Reitz, C., Honig, L.S., Tang, M.X., Shea, S.,&#13;<br><br>&amp; Mayeux, R. (2005). Aggregation of vascular risk factors and risk&#13;<br><br>of incident Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 65(4), 545-551.&#13;<br><br>Miller, G. (2012). Stopping Alzheimer's before it starts.&#13;<br><br>Science, 337 (6096), 790-792. Mount, C., &amp; Downton, C. (2006).&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer disease: progress or profit? Nature Medicine. 12(7), 780-784.&#13;<br><br>National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. (2012).&#13;<br><br>Areas of responsibility for health education specialist 2010. Retrieved&#13;<br><br>from responsibilities.&#13;<br><br>National Institute on Aging. (2012a). Alzheimer's disease:&#13;<br><br>Fact sheet, 2011. Retrieved from&#13;<br><br>;<br><br>National Institute on Aging. (2012b). Alzheimer's disease:&#13;<br><br>Unraveling the mystery. Retrieved from;<br><br>files/6113/3789/2232/unraveling_final.pdf.&#13;<br><br>Reitz, C., Jun, G., Naj, A., Rajbhandary, R., Varda rajan, B.N.,&#13;<br><br>Wang, L.S., … Mayeux, R. (2013). Variants in the ATP-binding cassette&#13;<br><br>transporter (ABCA7), apolipoprotein E e4, and the risk of late-onset&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer disease in African Americans. Journal of the American Medical&#13;<br><br>Association, 309(14), 1483-1492.&#13;<br><br>Rich, J.A., &amp; Ro, M. (2002). A Poor Man's Plight:&#13;<br><br>Uncovering the Disparity in Men's Health. Battle Creek, MI: WK&#13;<br><br>Kellogg Foundation.&#13;<br><br>Roberts, J.S., Connell, C.M., Cisewski, D., Hipps, Y.G., Demissie,&#13;<br><br>S. &amp; Green, R.C. (2003). Differences between African Americans and&#13;<br><br>whites in their perceptions of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease&#13;<br><br>&amp; Associated Disorders, 17(1), 19-26.&#13;<br><br>Scarmeas, N., Stern, Y., Mayeux, R., Manly, J.J., Schupf, N., &amp;&#13;<br><br>Luchsinger, J.A. (2009). Mediterranean diet and mild cognitive&#13;<br><br>impairment. Archives of Neurology, 66(2), 216-225.&#13;<br><br>Schneider, J.A., Arvanitakis, Z., Bang, W., Bennett, D. A. (2007).&#13;<br><br>Mixed brain pathologies account for most dementia cases in&#13;<br><br>community-dwelling older persons. Neurology, 69(24), 2197-2204.&#13;<br><br>Sherrington, R., Rogaev, E.I., Liang, Y., Rogaeva, E. A., Levesque,&#13;<br><br>G., Ikeda, M., … St. George-Hyslop, P.H. (1995). Cloning of a gene&#13;<br><br>bearing missense mutation in early-onset familial Alzheimer's&#13;<br><br>disease. Nature, 375(6534), 754-760.&#13;<br><br>Sleegers, K., &amp; Van Duijn, C.M. (2001). Alzheimer's&#13;<br><br>disease: Genes, pathogenesis and risk prediction. Community Genetics,&#13;<br><br>4(4), 197-203.&#13;<br><br>Tang, M.X., Cross, P., Andrews, H., Jacobs, D.M., Small, S., Bell,&#13;<br><br>K., … Mayeux, R. (2001). Incidence of AD in African-Americans,&#13;<br><br>Caribbean Hispanics, and Caucasians in northern Manhattan. Neurology,&#13;<br><br>56(1), 49-56.&#13;<br><br>Tanzi, R.E., &amp; Bertram, L. (2001). New frontiers in&#13;<br><br>Alzheimer's <a href=""></a> disease genetics. Neuron, 32(2), 181-184.&#13;<br><br>Tsivgoulis, G., Alexandrov, A.V., Wadley, V.G., Unverzagt, F.W.,&#13;<br><br>Go, R.C., Moy, C.S., … Howard, G. (2009). Association of higher&#13;<br><br>diastolic blood pressure levels with cognitive impairment. Neurology,&#13;<br><br>73(8), 589-595.&#13;<br><br>U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). 2010 Census redistricting data (Public&#13;<br><br>Law 94-171) summary file, Table P1. Retrieved from http:// www.census.&#13;<br><br>gov/prod/cen2010/doc/p194-171.pdf.&#13;<br><br>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). National plan&#13;<br><br>to address Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved from;<br><br>daltcp/napa/NatlPlan.pdf.&#13;<br><br>Vermeer, S.E., Prins, N.D., den Heijer, T., Hofman, A., Koudstaal,&#13;<br><br>P.J., &amp; Breteler, M.M. (2003). Silent brain infarcts and the risk of&#13;<br><br>dementia and cognitive decline. New England Journal of Medicine,&#13;<br><br>348(13), 1215-1222.&#13;<br><br>Viswanathan, A., Rocca, W.A., &amp; Tzourio, C. (2009). Vascular&#13;<br><br>risk factors and dementia: How to move forward? Neurology, 72(4),&#13;<br><br>368-374.&#13;<br><br>Williams, M.M., Scharff, D.P., Mathews, K.J., Hoffsuemmer, J.S.,&#13;<br><br>Jackson, P., Morris, J.C., &amp; Edwards, D.F. (2010). Barriers and&#13;<br><br>facilitators of African American participation in Alzheimer's&#13;<br><br>disease biomarker research. Alzheimer Disease &amp; Associated&#13;<br><br>Disorders, 24(Suppl), S24-S29.&#13;<br><br>Yancey, A.K., Ortega, A.N., &amp; Kumanyika, S.K. (2006). Effective&#13;<br><br>recruitment and retention of minority research participants. Annual&#13;<br><br>Review of Public Health, 27, 1-28.&#13;<br><br>Deborah A. Fortune, PhD, MCHES, North Carolina Central University,&#13;<br><br>Department of Public Health Education, 1801 Fayetteville Street, Durham,&#13;<br><br>NC 27707 ude.uccn|enutrofd#ude.uccn|enutrofd, Rosalyn Lang, PhD, North Carolina A &amp; T&#13;<br><br>University, Greensboro, North Carolina, Sharon Cook, PhD, North Carolina&#13;<br><br>A &amp; T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina, Goldie S. Byrd,&#13;<br><br>PhD, North Carolina A &amp; T State University, Greensboro, North&#13;<br><br>Carolina, Send correspondence to Deborah A. Fortune, North Carolina&#13;<br><br>Central University, Department of Public Health Education, 1801&#13;<br><br>Fayetteville Street, Durham, NC 27707 ude.uccn|enutrofd#ude.uccn|enutrofd&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Table 1. Early Signs and Examples of Alzheimer's Disease&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Sign Explanation&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Memory loss that disrupts Forgetting recent information,&#13;<br><br>daily life repeating, asking the same information&#13;<br><br>over and over, relying on lists or aids&#13;<br><br>to remember, asking others to do things&#13;<br><br>they did&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Challenges in planning or Having problems paying bills, or&#13;<br><br>solving problems following a recipe, or concentrating.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Difficulty Completing Having trouble driving to familiar&#13;<br><br>familiar tasks at home, at locations, managing a budget at home or&#13;<br><br>work or at leisure work, or difficulty remembering the&#13;<br><br>rules of a game.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Confusion with time or Losing track of dates, seasons, and&#13;<br><br>place passage of time. They find it difficult&#13;<br><br>to know where they are or how they got&#13;<br><br>there.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Trouble understanding Having difficulty reading, judging&#13;<br><br>visual images and spatial distances or color or contrast. They may&#13;<br><br>relationships not realize they are the person in the&#13;<br><br>mirror.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>New problems with words in Having trouble following or joining a&#13;<br><br>speaking or writing conversation. They have difficulty with&#13;<br><br>vocabulary and call a common object by&#13;<br><br>another name. They will repeat.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Misplacing things and Having difficulty putting things in the&#13;<br><br>losing the ability to right place. They may not be able to&#13;<br><br>retrace steps retrace steps and might accuse a loved&#13;<br><br>one of stealing from them.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Decreased or poor judgment Having difficulty with decision making&#13;<br><br>or judgment such as giving large amounts&#13;<br><br>of money to telemarketers. They may not&#13;<br><br>want to groom themselves properly.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Withdrawal from work or Removing themselves from hobbies, sports&#13;<br><br>social activities or work related activities. They may&#13;<br><br>feel insecure about socializing because&#13;<br><br>of the changes they are experiencing.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Changes in mood and Having issues with confusion, suspicion,&#13;<br><br>personality depression, fear and anxiety. They&#13;<br><br>become easily upset at home, work, with&#13;<br><br>friends or in areas outside of their&#13;<br><br>comfort zone.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Source: Alzheimer's Association (2012a).&#13;<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

2 Year Programs Offer Opportunity for Quicker Career Advancement - 24 Jul 2015 04:07


[[html]]<object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Two-year programs offered by junior and community colleges are quicker and less expensive than four-year programs. Contrary to popular belief, the path to advancement does not always travel through a bachelor or master's degree program. Two-year associate degrees are more convenient because most offer part-time, evening, weekend, and online classes. This convenience provides advantages for those who have full-time jobs, especially adults with families.<br><br>Associate Healthcare Degrees: Two Year Continuing Education Programs<br><br>The following are a few of the many two-year associate degree programs in healthcare:<br><br>Dental Hygienist - normal duties include cleaning teeth and taking oral x-rays. They also provide patients with education about oral hygiene and perform routine dental tasks such as applying fluoride or sealants. Dental hygienists work closely alongside dentists, utilizing dental instruments and technology. Careers for dental hygienists rank among the fastest growing occupations.<br><br>Physical Therapist Assistant - are in the top ten fastest growing careers in the health care industry. They work under the direction and supervision of a physical therapist to treat patients. The majority of employment opportunities for physical therapist assistants are in physical therapist's offices or hospitals.<br><br>Occupational Therapy Assistant - work under the direction of licensed occupational therapists, providing rehabilitation services to a variety of patients. Occupational therapy assistants often help those who have been injured learn how to perform daily tasks after they have lost motor skills or have developed disabilities.<br><br>Pharmacy Technicians - prepare prescriptions by retrieving, counting, pouring, weighing, measuring, and sometimes mixing medication. They prepare the prescription labels, select an appropriate prescription container and affix the prescription and auxiliary labels to the container. Pharmacy technicians typically work the same hours as pharmacists.<br><br>Technical College Degrees: Adult Education Programs <br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="330" /><br><br>The following are two-year programs which focus on the principles and theories of science, engineering, and mathematics. Prior to enrollment, ensure these adult education programs are accredited by the Technology Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) as a minimum.<br><br>Environmental Engineering Technicians - work closely with environmental engineers and scientists in developing methods and devices used in the prevention, control, or remediation of environmental hazards. They inspect and maintain equipment related to air pollution and recycling. Some inspect water and wastewater treatment systems to ensure that pollution control requirements are met.<br><br>Wind Turbine Technicians - must be agile, safety conscious, and not be afraid of heights. This is because the place they work is 300 feet or 91.44 meters above the ground. However, the views are great. Wind turbine technician work is demanding and requires a thorough knowledge of hydraulics, electricity, and electronics.<br><br>Mechanical Engineering Technicians - help engineers design, develop, test, and manufacture industrial machinery, consumer products, and other equipment. They may assist in product tests by, for example, setting up instrumentation for auto crash tests. During production planning, mechanical engineering technicians prepare layouts and drawings of an assembly process and of parts to be manufactured. They also estimate labor costs, equipment life, and plant space.<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="338" /><br><br>Service Industry Degrees: Careers with Associate Degrees<br><br>Service industry occupations provide services in such areas as food and <a href=""></a> beverage preparation, lodging, barbering and cosmetology, protection, and personal services. The following are a few examples of two-year programs leading to an associate degree.<br><br>Culinary - community colleges and culinary institutes offer culinary degrees which lead to becoming a chef or other food service managerial positions. The advantage of completing a culinary degree program is the ability to start right away in as a cook or chef, without having to spend time in a lower skilled position. Also, culinary degree holders typically begin their first job in better hotels and fine dining restaurants.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Fire Science - earning an associate's degree in fire <a href=""></a> science improve an applicant's chances for a job as a fire fighter. A number of colleges and universities offer courses leading to two-year degrees in fire engineering or fire science. These programs focus on firefighting equipment and techniques, building construction, emergency medical <a href=""></a> technology, and public relations.<br><br>These programs are only a sampling of two-year programs which lead to earning a degree offering increased opportunities for quicker advancement in most career fields. Additional programs include automotive technology, air traffic control, construction technology, restaurant management, and administrative assistant.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Community colleges play an important role in the U.S. educational system. They have existed for more than a hundred years and offer a wide variety of educational opportunities for all adults. For anyone interested in career advancement through continuing education, there are more than 1,000 community and junior colleges in the <a href=""></a> United States.<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="337" /><br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

The Five Best Types of Motivation For Long-Term Health Success - 23 Jul 2015 23:35


[[html]]<img src="" width="636" height="358" alt="The Five Best Types of Motivation For Long-Term Health Success" data-chomp-id="1349621078453702033" data-asset-url="" data-format="png"/><br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="308" /><br><br>Motivation can come and go like a fart in the wind. If it doesn't stick around long enough to push you toward your goals, then how does everyone else manage? First, accept that health and fitness are a learning process, like everything in life. Second, identify your motivators so you can tap into them when you need to.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Leo Babauta from Zen Habits notes that these five characteristics are the best motivators for learning new skills, but we've adapted them slightly to apply to your health pursuits. Here they are:<br><br>Curiosity: You're genuinely curious about how to make yourself <a href=""></a> healthier and fitter. The key is to embrace this curiosity, questioning what would make you feel, move, eat, sleep, and live better. For example, when you learn about a new method or tip, you may want to avoid taking it immediately at face value, and just try it in order to see if it will fit your lifestyle and preferences.<br><br><br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Exploring Something New: Leo notes that this can be related to curiosity. Expanding your horizons in a fun way, to discover the pleasure in exercising or just doing, can reinvigorate a tired routine. As they say, "don't knock it 'til you try it!"<br><br>Doing It With Someone Else: Create friendly competition, and more importantly, accountability with a <a href=""></a> friend. Leo adds that, "…while doing something for myself is also a great goal, doing it for someone else helps a lot."<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="270" /><br><br>Caring Deeply About It: Most folks probably care most about improving their overall health (and looking sexier. C'mon, let's be honest). They're good motivators, but are rarely everlasting. Repeatedly ask yourself why you want to do something to drill down to your core reason for trying <a href=""></a> to be healthier. For example, instead of saying "I want to lose 10 pounds," ask yourself why you want to lose 10 pounds. Presumably to look good. Then, ask yourself why you want to look good, and continue to pry until you arrive at your main "why."<br><br>To Prove That You Can Take On Difficult Things: Difficult tasks can be discouraging. Leo writes:<br><br>For years, I quit when the learning got difficult. But that's when real learning happens — when things are difficult and you push through, when you are failing and wanting to quit. We learn by pushing ourselves into uncomfortable areas, and if we always quit, we'll never get very deep into anything. So my best motivation recently is to prove to myself that I can stick to difficult learning challenges. So far, I am proving myself right.<br><br>Further, Leo's post outlines the types of motivation that would be harmful toward the process of learning (and in this case, health pursuits). Head over to the blog post below and learn better ways to hold that farI mean, motivationin.<br><br>The Best &amp; Less-than-Best Motivations for Learning | Zen Habits<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br><img src="" width="294" /><br><br>Image by Nomad's Memories.<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

Is technology in the classroom a waste of time? - 23 Jul 2015 12:59


[[html]]Schools across the country are rapidly turning to interactive<br><br>whiteboards, iPads, and laptops to excite students about learningand<br><br>prepare them for jobs in a globalized world. But educators disagree<br><br>about whether they are effective teaching tools or just a waste of time.<br><br>YES Repairing and upgrading technology is extremely expensive.&#13;<br><br>Schools now spend more of their money on gadgets and less on classroom&#13;<br><br>supplies. It would be one thing if kids were learning more. But&#13;<br><br>researchers have little data to support that notion.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>There is evidence, however, that once technology is put in the&#13;<br><br>classroom, it often sits idle. When it is used, too much <a href=""></a> time goes into&#13;<br><br>learning how to use it rather than actual learning.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>In his 1854 book, Walden, Henry David Thoreau made an observation&#13;<br><br>that now seems visionary: "We are in great haste to construct a&#13;<br><br>magnetic telegraph from Maine to Texas; but Maine and Texas, it may be,&#13;<br><br>have nothing important to communicate."&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Are our thoughts more important just because technology gives us a&#13;<br><br>faster way to express them? We should listen to Thoreauand think twice&#13;<br><br>before buying too much technology for our schools. Just because&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>something is new doesn't mean it's a better teaching tool.&#13;<br><br><img style="float:right;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="371" /><br><br>Yes, students have to be proficient in technology, but first we should&#13;<br><br>make sure they have something "important to communicate."&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>PAUL THOMAS, PROFESSOR&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>FURMAN UNIVERSITY, SOUTH CAROLINA &#13;<br><br>NO Interactive <a href=""></a> Web sites can do a lot to foster learning in our&#13;<br><br>schools. Several sites now allow users to simultaneously advance their&#13;<br><br>knowledge and sharpen their communications skills. Learning activities&#13;<br><br>that use technology let students apply what they've studied by&#13;<br><br>creating blogs, Web sites, and other forms of multimedia. This&#13;<br><br>encourages a higher level of critical thinking while reaching students&#13;<br><br>with a wide range of learning styles.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Online tools like You Tube and Prezi give teachers the opportunity&#13;<br><br>to engage students in creative ways, enabling richer classroom&#13;<br><br><img src="" width="361" /><br><br>discussions.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Today's students have grown up in the digital age, where&#13;<br><br>learning is not only important, but fun. Allowing kids to use social&#13;<br><br>media and interactive sites in schoolwhich they already use at&#13;<br><br>homeis just common sense. It also lets teachers show kids what it&#13;<br><br>means to be responsible digital citizensan area in which many schools&#13;<br><br>are failing.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>In this fast-paced, ever-changing world, students must rely on&#13;<br><br>technology <a href=""></a> more than ever to succeed. It's our responsibility to&#13;<br><br>make sure that both teachers and parents understand why.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>—ERIC SHENINGER, PRINCIPAL&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>NEW MILFORD HIGH SCHOOL, NEW JERSEY&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br><img style="float:right;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="307" /><br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

Saudi Aramco's Marketing Strategy. - Free Online Library - 23 Jul 2015 04:59


[[html]]Aramco Trading is a new SA unit set up earlier this year to begin<br><br>by end-2011 to trade in refined products, maximise downstream<br><br>integration and generate value by leveraging its growing global system.<br><br>Named Saudi Aramco Product Trading Co. and based in the kingdom, this<br><br>will enhance the system of balancing refined petroleum products and back<br><br>SA's expanding local and overseas downstream investment portfolio.<br><br>Addressing customers and industry participants at annual IP Week&#13;<br><br>gathering in London, SA Senior VP for the Downstream Khaled G.&#13;<br><br>al-Bu'ainain in February said: "Through the establishment of&#13;<br><br>this new subsidiary, Aramco Trading, we hope to better capture&#13;<br><br>integration opportunities in our global system, and additionally create&#13;<br><br>more value for our expanding downstream business in Saudi Arabia and&#13;<br><br>overseas". He said with energy demand forecast to rise in the long&#13;<br><br>term, SA continued to demonstrate its commitment to meeting future&#13;<br><br>demand by under-taking a significant downstream capital programme via&#13;<br><br>investments through its subsidiaries, affiliates and JV in Saudi Arabia&#13;<br><br>and abroad.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Aramco Trading President/CEO Sa'id A. al-Hadrami told the&#13;<br><br>gathering: "The shift in trade patterns will bring both challenges&#13;<br><br>and opportunities that can be leveraged by the company in balancing its&#13;<br><br>system and create value through the continuous market participation. We&#13;<br><br>also want to emphasise that the new subsidiary will only engage in&#13;<br><br>products trading".&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Aramco Trading will begin operations with <a href=""></a> about 100 professionals,<br><br>mostly being current SA employees. All employees will be based in<br><br>Dhahran. The company is also interviewing external candidates for some<br><br>trading positions, with offices to be located in the main American,<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="295" /><br><br>Asian, European and other markets.<br><br>Two SA fuel oil cargoes, both for October loading, were recently&#13;<br><br>sold at strong price levels for a second time in a week, amid severely&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>tight supplies of on-specification grades. Both the East Asian and&#13;<br><br>Middle Eastern markets were tight, as they have been for nearly a month,&#13;<br><br>mainly due to large exports of high-density, high-viscosity cargoes from&#13;<br><br>the Caribbean resulting in severe quality imbalances.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>SA sold the 90,000-ton parcel of 180-centistoke (cst) and 0.96-0.97&#13;<br><br>density, for Oct. 17-19 loading from Ras Tanura, to Vitol at a premium&#13;<br><br>of $13-$14/ton to Singapore spot quotes on fob basis, up from $10-$11&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>previously and the highest price level in more than six years. Vitol,&#13;<br><br>which also bought the previous offering for Oct. 8-10 lifting, was seen&#13;<br><br>booking the 80,000-ton Messai'eed to lift and deliver the Qatari&#13;<br><br>cargo to Singapore.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>ExxonMobil sold the second high-viscosity 700-cst parcel of about&#13;<br><br>the same size, for Oct. 29-31 loading from its JV Samref refinery in&#13;<br><br>Yanbu', to the Bakri group of Indonesia at a discount of&#13;<br><br>$13-$15/ton to spot quotes, fob, steady to its previous deal.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Since September, only a single 90,000-ton parcel has landed in East&#13;<br><br>Asia for each month, with the Vitol parcel expected for November&#13;<br><br>arrival, down from monthly average volumes of 350,000-360,000 tons until&#13;<br><br>August.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>The tight market has also led to cargoes from India being sold at&#13;<br><br>high levels, including the latest Indian Oil Corp (IOC) parcel, for Oct.&#13;<br><br>26-28 loading from Chennai, which was sold to Westport at <a href=""></a> parity to a&#13;<br><br>discount of $1/ton to spot quotes, fob, its highest in more than six&#13;<br><br>years.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>The last three low-density 380-cst parcels from Mangalore Refinery&#13;<br><br>&amp; Petrochemicals, all for October and November lifting, were&#13;<br><br>transacted at seven-month high premia of $5.50-$7.50/ton to spot quotes,&#13;<br><br>fob.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>India's Reliance Industries (RIL) bought an extra 600,000&#13;<br><br>barrels of crude oil from SA for October, soaking up some barrels Shell&#13;<br><br>did not lift because of a fire at its Singapore refinery. RIL, owner of&#13;<br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="370" /><br><br>the world's biggest refining complex in the western Indian state of&#13;<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Gujarat, bought additional volumes of Arab Light (AL) for lifting on&#13;<br><br>Oct. 26. It buys about 230,000-240,000 b/d of Saudi crude oil. Shell&#13;<br><br>Singapore cancelled the lifting of 4m barrels of AL for October loading&#13;<br><br>after a fire forced the company to shut down its largest refinery.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>The move to take in extra supplies for October may help RIL cut&#13;<br><br>crude oil processing costs as SA has raised AL's export price for&#13;<br><br>November to a record high. Reuters last week quoted an un-named&#13;<br><br>South-East Asian refiner as saying of SA's new formula: "Their&#13;<br><br>official selling price is so high, it's not economical to request&#13;<br><br>for more barrels for November".&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>The US is still regarded as the most important market for Saudi&#13;<br><br>crude oil. This is mainly for political reasons, although Asia now takes&#13;<br><br>almost <a href=""></a> 63% of SA's exports. Riyadh always wants to see US&#13;<br><br>dependence on Saudi oil strong and increasing. Saudi Arabia is&#13;<br><br>occasionally the number one crude oil supplier to the US.&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>QUALITIES OF ARABIAN AND REFERENCE CRUDE OILS&#13;<br><br>&#13;<br><br>Crude Oil API deg. % Residue&gt;650oF % S in Residue&#13;<br><br>Arab Super Light* 50 15 0.2&#13;<br><br>Arab Berri 39 39 2.1&#13;<br><br>Arab Light 34 45 3.1&#13;<br><br>Arab Medium 31 50 3.9&#13;<br><br>Arab Heavy 27 54 4.3&#13;<br><br>Kuwait 31 45 2.5&#13;<br><br>Brent 37 37 0.6&#13;<br><br><img style="float:right;margin:10px;border:none;" src="" width="279" /><br><br>WTI 40 31 0.6&#13;<br><br>Dubai 32 45 3.0&#13;<br><br>Oman 34 42 1.4&#13;<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

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